factors that affect cognitive function

Socioeconomic factors have a substantial effect on access to basic resources, such as an area to play and be active, the noise level at bed time, and the familial established routines and practices. In today's research environment, children's diet, physical activity, and other lifestyle factors are commonly studied in the context of health, independent of their effect on cognition and learning. Stimulant drugs, like nicotine and amphetamine, improve cognitive function at lower doses but impair memory performance at higher doses. Information processing models of cognition. If conditions are not optimal, the child experiences lower levels of alertness, or wariness, thus decreases attention to any input from the environment. Hertzog C, Kramer AF, Wilson RS, Lindenberger U. Psychol Sci Public Interest. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. High blood pressure 4. Lifestyle factors, such as inactivity and obesity, contribute to cognitive decline in the general population, but little is known about how these factors may affect individuals with a chronic inflammatory condition such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Factors Affecting Cognitive Function in Older Adults: A Turkish Sample. See this image and copyright information in PMC. In a climate where childcare and school feeding policies are continuously discussed, this thematic review aims to provide an impulse for discussion and a call for more holistic approaches to support child development. Nutr. As the brain cells begin to deteriorate, the affected person begins to lose their memory. Hjorth MF, Sørensen LB, Andersen R, Dyssegaard CB, Ritz C, Tetens I, Michaelsen KF, Astrup A, Egelund N, Sjödin A. Physiol Behav. Although affect can be harmful if it is unregulated or unchecked, our affective experiences normally help us to function efficiently and in a way that increases our chances of survival. Several factors may play a role in the ability of patients with Alzheimer’s disease to perform activities of daily living (ADL). Res. Possible Factors Affecting the Association Between CSF α-Synuclein Level and Cognitive Function Role of Change in the Dynamics of CSF α-Synuclein Over Time. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. For example, using a 2020 Jan 10;10(1):31. doi: 10.3390/bs10010031. 2018 Mar 2;3(3):CD009728. Depression 7. 2016 Oct 15;165:398-404. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.08.021. Research from studies of diet and nutrition, physical activity and fitness, sleep, and broader influences of cultural and socioeconomic factors related to health and learning, were summarized to offer examples of research that integrate lifestyle factors and cognition with learning. Physical activity, diet and other behavioural interventions for improving cognition and school achievement in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight. Elevated cholesterol 5. As a result, current knowledge on predictors of optimal cognition and learning is incomplete, and likely lacks understanding of many critical facts and relationships, their interactions, and the nature of their relationships, such as there being mediating or confounding factors that could provide important knowledge to increase the efficacy of learning-focused interventions. Having a specific form of a gene known as APOE-e4, also linked to Alzheimer's disease — though having the gene doesn't guarantee that you'll experience cognitive declineOther medical conditions and lifestyle factors have been linked to an increased risk of cognitive change, including: 1. Based on the well-established relationships between diet and physical functions, it stands to reason that diet and PA also affect cognitive function, or how well a person can learn. doi: 10.1017/S0954422409990175. -. Contributors to children’s cognitive, learning,…, Contributors to children’s cognitive, learning, and other developmental outcomes are described in this…, An example of the process involved in learning and potential impacts of nutrition,…, NLM Depressant drugs, like alcohol, can cause long-term effects on prefrontal cortex function, disrupting cognitive abilities. doi: 10.1037/a0012736. Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijge.2013.01.002. Enrichment Effects on Adult Cognitive Development: Can the Functional Capacity of Older Adults Be Preserved and Enhanced? The outer-most circle represents the child’s larger environment, such as the home and the school. 2009;22:220–243. One of the most basic conditions for a child to be able to complete these tasks is having the necessary energy and no inhibiting factors of discomfort (e.g., hunger, fatigue). This site needs JavaScript to work properly. The results indicated that the elderly with cognitive impairment showed low scores in terms of the three parameters of the CDC HRQOL-4. Environmental enrichment can strongly affect a child's cognitive development. 2019 Aug 20;11(8):1953. doi: 10.3390/nu11081953. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Contributors to children’s cognitive, learning, and other developmental outcomes are described in this ecological model. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Treatment Emergent … "The exercise intervention alone improved strength and endurance, mobility and stability, and participants also saw increases in several measures of cognitive function. One such factor may be audiovisual media exposure during early childhood. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. J. Exp. 2018 Jan 29;1(1):CD009728. The Effect of Eating Habits' Quality on Scholastic Performance in Turkish Adolescents. Psychol. How People Learn II: Learners, Contexts, and Cultures. Possible influential factors of cognitive function were also detected. Dementia is a major public health issue worldwide, with a serious burden for patients, caregivers, and society, as well as substantial economic impacts (1). Environmental factors that might explain this increase have been explored. “However, little is known about how these factors may contribute in the setting of a chronic inflammatory condition such as RA, although one study in systemic lupus erythematosus … National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine . RESEARCH ARTICLE Cognitive and physical factors affecting daily function in Alzheimer’s disease: A cross-sectional analysis Fang Yu PhD, RN, GNP-BC, FGSA, FAAN1 | Yan Chen MSN, RN2 | Michelle A. Mathiason MS1 | Qiaoqin Wan PhD, RN3 | Feng V. Lin PhD, RN4 1School of Nursing, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA “Cognitive function” is the technical word for how the brain processes information. Obesity 6. The strongest risk factors for MCI are: 1. Would you like email updates of new search results? Common factor models have suggested that a number of different factors including speed of processing, working memory, inhibition, or sensory function may be responsible for cognitive decline observed across a variety of different tasks. Pseudobulbar affect is common in ALS and is the result of a brain reflex that is no longer working correctly. While mild dehydration appears to affect mainly cognitive performance in men, in this study, women demonstrated little impact on cognitive functions and greater effects on mood. NIH Psychol. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance - Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet. Likewise, the school’s resources, for instance playgrounds and green space, as well as routines and practices, affect the child’s lifestyle behaviors. Older adults should be assessed in terms of factors related to cognition, such as age, residency, smoking, and mood in order to plan the most suitable geriatric care. An example of the process involved in learning and potential impacts of nutrition, based on Information Processing Theory. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of different aspects of physical performance and cognitive functions on ADL in patients suffering from mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease. The brain is a muscle that must be exercised and used in order to achieve its maximum level of... Cognitive Load.  |  USA.gov. 1979;30:363–396.  |  Rev. Self-reported bad sleep quality and sleep apnea were also associated with lower cognitive function scores. Loeber S(1), Nakovics H, Kniest A, Kiefer F, Mann K, Croissant B. Cognitive function is profoundly affected by unbalanced levels of hormones such as estrogen, thyroid and pituitary hormones, and cortisol. It affects many aspects of thought, perception and understanding. 55 Factors Affecting Cognitive Function in Epilepsy 56 Non-seizure related factors that affect cognition Developmental, neurological, psychiatric and medical disorders • Learning Disabilities • Developmental Disabilities • Mental Retardation 57 Non-seizure related factors that affect cognition Environmental factors are the external influences that affect cognitive development. The findings also indicate that the following variables were found to significantly affect cognitive function: (1) age, (2) residency (rest home), (3) smoking (yes or quit), and (4) number of unhealthy mental days. Appl. A systematic review of the effect of breakfast on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents. Author information: (1)Department of General Psychiatry, University of Heidelberg, Vossstrasse 2, 69115 Heidelberg, Germany. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Results: We found that the duration of opiate dependence and maintenance treatment, as well as additional substance consumption (alcohol, amphetamines, and cocaine) are the main variables contributing to cognitive impairment in the domains of attention and executive function. Therefore, understanding the modifiable risk factors and developing evidence-based interventions for delaying or preventing cognitive impairment is an important challenge. People with ALS can have pseudobulbar affect and no other cognitive, behavioral, or psychological symptoms. The findings also indicate that the following variables were found to significantly affect cognitive function: (1) age, (2) residency (rest home), (3) smoking (yes or quit), and (4) number of unhealthy mental days. Although seizures, obstructive sleep apnea, early menopause, and increased risk of developing the dementia of Alzheimer disease can certainly impact cognitive function, other frequent attendant systemic -medical conditions, can also impact cognitive function. There are many types of cognitive disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, and dementia. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Among the five cross-sectional results showing that lower CSF α-synuclein was associated with worse cognitive function, four showed an association with frontal/executive function . Atkinson R., Shiffrin R. Human Memory: A Proposed System and its Control Processes. We conducted secondary analyses on cross-sectional baseline data … The literature review demonstrates that the associations and causal relationships between these factors are vastly understudied. The Hodkinson Abbreviated Mental Test (HAMT) was used to describe cognitive function of the individuals. Increasing age 2. Neglecting Practice. child nutrition; cognitive function; diet; diversity; executive function; focus and concentration; hunger; learning; physical activity; socio-economic characteristics. These factors involve cognitive functions like attention, memory, and reasoning (Danili & Reid, 2006 ). This thematic review provides an overview of knowledge connecting the selected lifestyle factors of diet, physical activity, and sleep hygiene to children's cognition and learning. Numerou…  |  COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Smoking 3. Diabetes 2. HHS The lifestyle factors affecting the child’s physiology are dietary intake, physical activity, and sleeping habits. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ps.30.020179.002051. A dearth of differential research exists regarding the determinants of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and moderate cognitive impairment or dementia among nursing home residents. Psychol. biological ability and readiness to learn through modi fication of lifestyle factors and the environment. They usually result from the loss of brain cells. These factors serve to modulate performance such that it may improve or decline. Social factors showed no clear association with different scores, however, being raised in a higher socioeconomic class correlated with higher cognitive function scores. General health can also determine the pace at which a person develops cognitive elements. 2016 Jun;48(6):1197-222. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000901. Thus, WM capacity will be restricted, limiting what information is eventually encoded and retained in long-term memory, from where it can be retrieved at a later time. Moreover, there is little overlap between the two literatures, although it is reasonable to expect that the lifestyle factors explored in the health-focused research are intertwined with cognition and learning processes. Simon H.A. Kristo AS, Gültekin B, Öztağ M, Sikalidis AK. Parents interested in increasing their children's intellectual capacities should expose their babies to a variety of toys and stimuli including blocks, play letters, books and dolls. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). Environmental factors. The process of learning is a complex construct that can be described as a series of engagement in processing and information-storing/memory systems that ultimately result in knowledge. Lack of physical exercise 8. Research from studies of diet and nutrition, physical activity and fitness, sleep, and broader influences of cultural and socioeconomic factors related to health and learning, were summarized to offer examples of research that integrate … How Lifestyle Factors Affect Cognitive and Executive Function and the Ability to Learn in Children Nutrients . Cognitive Performance Factors Task Difficulty. Because cognitive function is affected by various factors and changes over time, it can be concluded that a cohort study to investigate cognitive function and the factors affecting it would be more effective than a cross-sectional study. Epub 2008 Oct 1. Annu. Martin A, Booth JN, Laird Y, Sproule J, Reilly JJ, Saunders DH. 1968;2:89–195. Cognitive functioning was assessed through a neuropsychological test-battery. Cognitive factors refer to characteristics of the person that affect performance and learning. They include: Economic factors. Donnelly JE, Hillman CH, Castelli D, Etnier JL, Lee S, Tomporowski P, Lambourne K, Szabo-Reed AN. These are mostly controllable. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009728.pub4. Learn. This thematic review provides an overview of knowledge connecting the selected lifestyle factors of diet, physical activity, and sleep hygiene to children’s cognition and learning. -, Hoyland A., Dye L., Lawton C.L. In this study, 377 older adults (mean age: 74.71 ± 6.15 years) were examined. The purpose of this study was to determine the influential factors of cognitive function in older adults. Physical Activity, Fitness, Cognitive Function, and Academic Achievement in Children: A Systematic Review. The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article. Finally, lifestyle choices and behaviors have a significant impact on health status in general and cognitive performance in particular. 2008 Oct;9(1):1-65. doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6053.2009.01034.x. Keywords: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is now among the most commonly diagnosed chronic psychological dysfunctions of childhood. It does not necessarily mean that a person is feeling anxious, sad, depressed, or emotionally distraught. By varying estimates, it has increased by 30% in the past 20 years. Although basic research in cells or animal studies are available and indicate a number of possible physiological pathways, inclusion of those data would distract from the fact that there is a significant gap in knowledge on lifestyle factors and optimal learning in children. “Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors such as inactivity and obesity are risk factors for cognitive decline in the general population,” reported the researchers, whose findings appeared in ACR Open Rheumatology. Economic factors affect cognitive development in children. Objective. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. This review provides information focused on studies in children. Behav Sci (Basel). Motiv. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Factors affecting cognitive function of opiate-dependent patients. The following independent variables were included in the logistic regression analysis: age, gender, education level, residency, smoking habit, musculoskeletal pain, medication use, number of unhealthy mental days, number of unhealthy physical days, and activity limitation days. The inner-most circle represents the child’s own body, where physiological conditions, such as the nutrients and energy provided from meals and snacks, as well as the resulting feelings of hunger or tiredness, may directly influence the ability for cognitive processes. Rev. 2008;14:247–254. Epub 2016 Aug 26. Cognitive disorders are disorders that affect the functioning of the brain. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL-4) survey tool was used to measure the quality of life. Med Sci Sports Exerc. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009728.pub3. The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article. 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